Jordan - politics in the 20th century

Most of the population is of Arab origin, there are also national minorities of Circassians, Armenians and Kurds. The official and most common language is Arabic.

80% of the population are Sunni Muslims. The king can trace his lineage, starting from the prophet Muhammad. There is a Christian minority.

The country is divided into eight provinces. Three of them are known as the West Bank, but since 1988 Jordan has ceased to be responsible for this territory.

Jordan is not a typical constitutional monarchy of the Western model, because the king is the head of both the government and the state. The constitution was drawn up in 1952 and amended in 1974, 1976 and 1984. According to it, the country has a bicameral parliament consisting of the Senate, which includes 40 senators, appointed by the king for an eight-year term, with half resigning every four years, and from the House of Representatives, which includes 80 deputies. Deputies of the second chamber are elected by universal suffrage on a four-year majority system. The House of Representatives may be dissolved during the period of its activity. The king rules with the help of the council of ministers (cabinet), which he appoints. The Council is accountable to Parliament. The head of the cabinet is the prime minister. Despite the existence of an elected parliament, Jordan is more absolutist than democratic, although there have been some changes since 1989 aimed at democratizing the country.

Palestine, which included the West Bank of today's Jordan and Transjordan, which is now the East Bank, was part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire until the end of World War I. After that, both territories were under British control of the League of Nations. In 1923, Transjordan was subjected to greater control in its internal affairs when it disconnected from Palestine. It became completely independent in 1946 after the expiration of the British mandate. The mandate on Palestine ended in 1948 and the Jews proclaimed the new state of Israel. Fights between Arabs and Jews began and continued until a peace agreement was signed in 1949. By this time, Transjordan troops occupied part of Palestine to annex it to their new state, which they called Jordan.

The following year, they joined the West Bank.

After the death of his father in 1953, 17-year-old Hussein ibn Talan came to power in Jordan. Talan ruled the country until his death in 1999. In February 1958, Iraq and Jordan established the Arab Federation, which ceased to exist five months later, when the monarchy was overthrown in Iraq. During the reign, King Hussein I experienced many upheavals both in his country and in neighboring ones. They attempted to encroach on him, but despite everything he managed to maintain control over Jordan and played an important role in the Middle East. Jordan's relations with its neighbors were unstable, but overall, Hussein remained a fairly influential figure. The loss of the territories of the West Bank in 1967 after the Six Day War with Israel caused enormous damage to the country's economy.

In 1982, after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, King Hussein began to play a key role, trying to restore peaceful relations by establishing working relations with the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Yasser Arafat. By 1984, the Arab world was divided into two camps: the moderate - Jordan, Egypt and the PLO of Arafat and military radicals - Syria, Libya and the rebel wing of the PLO. In 1985, King Hussein and Arafat began work to establish peaceful relations in the Middle East. This would force the parties to unite, including the PLO, but Israel was against the participation of the PLO in the negotiations. Further, the PLO was blamed as an accomplice in terrorist acts, and Hussein’s attempts to establish peace did not bring success. In July 1988, Hussein announced that he no longer recognized the West Bank as Jordanian territory and was not responsible for the administration of this territory. His main goals are to revive the former role of the PLO in Jordan and accelerate the creation of a Palestinian state.

The image of the king as a mediator in the establishment of peace in the Middle East staggered when he supported Saddam Hussein in 1991 during the Gulf War. But the success of the US-led Middle East peace talks helped him rehabilitate. In 1994, a peace treaty was signed with Israel. Since 1992, the activities of political parties are again permitted. In November 1997, legislative elections were boycotted by opposition parties, and most independent candidates supported the king. In 1998, King Hussein spent several months in the United States, where he treated lymph cancer. In January 1999, Hussein appointed his eldest son Abdul the crowned prince, thus removing his brother Hamzah, who had been crowned prince for 33 years. Abdul took up the post of king a month after the death of his father.

In February 1999, King Abdul II appointed his father's ally Abdul-Raouf Rawabdeh as prime minister. In May 1999, the new king held talks with Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat to work out a common Arab position before resuming peace talks with Israel. www.camhub.cc
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